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A hen egg is a widely distributed product in human lives. In many countries people begin their days from fried eggs. Hen eggs are the most distributed and accessible in a shop. Different grades of hens lay eggs of different colour and size. Colour of an egg is not linked with its food properties (calorisator). In Russia and USA hen eggs are usually of white or light-beige colour. They are usually light-brown in Great Britain.

Energy value of the product Hen egg:
Proteins: 12.7 g.
Fats: 11.5 g.
Carbohydrates: 0.7 g.
A hen egg is a rather popular food product, which is, on top of that, is rather healthy. It has an unequal oval shape, and it consists of a shell, which covers the yolk and white of the egg. Eggs are obtained from different hen breeds owing to their reproductive function. The shell may be rough, smooth, as well as dull or glittering. Besides, in some variants speckles may exist, which are considered to be a quite normal phenomenon (see the photo).
The size and weight of hen eggs depend on the age, breed and weight of hens themselves. Besides, stress factors have significant importance, for example, temperature, food, etc. It is also possible to deliberately influence the yolk colour, it directly depends on the fodder for birds. If natural pigments are added, the colour can respectively become more intensive.
A great number of poultry farms, which output beige, white and brown eggs, are in America, Russia, Great Britain, as well as in many other countries. Before getting to shops eggs are marked by taking into account their storage period and weight.
Currently, owing to efforts of some manufacturers eggs can be found where 2 yolks exist having bright colour, or they can be enriched with iodine and selenium.
There is a special GOST Р 53155-2008 which regulates this aspect. We will pay more attention to keeping hen eggs at home. Only those eggs should be kept in the refrigerator, which are to be consumed during a week. Other pieces should be put closer to the freezer. In this case the period of their storage increases up to 2 weeks.
If at the moment no refrigerator is available, for example, during a rest period in a camp wild, several methods exist, which will allow to keep hen eggs fresh:
1. The product may be put and covered with saw dust, ash, chalk, grain. leguminous crops, salt.
2. The product may be filled with salty water or lime solution.
3. Every egg may be covered with paper and put into a basket. It should be put to a dry well aired place.
4. It can be greased with glycerol, petrolatum, butter and another fat, paraffin.
Also, if the required temperature and other terms of eggs storage are observed, it should anyway be taken into account that they can absorb odours. Therefore, onion, fish and other products having strong odours must not be placed nearby.
The benefit of hen eggs is stipulated by rich composition of vitamins and minerals.
Many people are interested in the caloric value of eggs and whether it is possible to eat them in the period of the weight loss. Nutrition experts assert that it is not only possible, but necessary, as fried eggs may become a remarkable breakfast.
It should also be noted that a hen egg is practically fully digested in the organism without leaving any toxins. Yolks have a large amount of vitamin D, which is required for assimilation of calcium. It has also ferrum, which promotes normalization of activities of the nervous system, what, in its turn, helps to cope with fatigue, insomnia and stress. Besides, this macro element reduces the risk of development of oncologic diseases, as well as problems with the heart and vessels.
The yolk also has lecithin, which normalizes the work of liver and bile ducts. Owing to the content of lutein the risk of eyesight problems is reduced. The hen egg also includes choline, which reduces the level of breast cancer development.
Owing to availability of vitamin K blood clotting ability improves. Hen eggs also includes folic acid, which is needed for pregnant women.
Energy value of the product:
  • caloric value 542 kcal per 100 g.
  • carbohydrates — 4.5 gг;
  • proteins — 46 g;
  • fats — 37.3 g.

One kg of fresh eggs has the same nutritional value as 278 g of egg powder. If the equivalent of 10 eggs should be obtained, 110 g of dry mélange may be dissolved in 400 g of water.
The egg mélange is a mixture of yolks and whites. After examination (test) and breaking of eggs the mix is stirred and filled to tin cans having capacity of 5 g and 10 g. The mélange is frozen in air at temperature —23° during 24—36 hours and kept at temperature not higher than—12° and air humidity 80—85%. Storage period - 8 months.
As a result of improper storage egg powder may spoil. The dry melange shall not be consumed for eating, if it has the following features:
  • poor dissolution in water. Usually it happens, when storage temperature and humidity are violated;
  • the colour has acquired the brown tint. The reason for this is oxidation of fats;
  • burned taste. It is met in the dry mélange after overheating of the egg mass, or if the powder was kept at higher temperature.
Invention of the egg powder has become a good support for food industry. Before this time only fresh eggs had to be used, what was not always convenient and possible. The dry mélange invention has made it possible to save money in transportation and storage of fresh eggs. The high quality egg powder, if correctly stored, can be suitable during a year.
It is used for bread, confectionary products baking, preparation of mayonnaise and meat semi-finished products.
Advantages of the powder over eggs may include absence of harmful bacteria in it. Fresh eggs may be the source of spreading the malignant bacteria (salmonellosis), and they cannot exist in the dry powder, as they perish during thermal treatment. Being so, all health properties are retained.
The vitamin and mineral complex is also retained, where vitamins of groups A, B, PP, minerals (iodine, zinc, copper, manganese, fluorine, potassium, magnesium, etc.) are included.