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Cereal crops

Cereal crops refer to a group of cultivated plants, which is most important in economic activity of humans. They give grains, the most important food product for humans (grits), raw materials for many branches of industry and fodder for live-stock animals.
Cereal crops are subdivided into bread and leguminous crops. Most bread grains (wheat, rye, oats, barley, corn, sorghum, millet, etc.) belong to the botanic family of cereals; buckwheat – to the family of buckwheat; leguminous crops belong to the legume family. Sometimes only cereals and similar to cereals are meant as grains.

The grain of cereal crops contains many carbohydrates (60—80 % on dry basis), proteins (7—20 % on dry basis), enzymes, vitamins of B group (B1, B2, B6), PP and A pro-vitamins, which explain its high nutrition value for humans and for use as the fodder. Leguminous crops are rich in proteins (on average 20-40% on dry basis), some grains (for example, soybeans) are rich in fat.
Currently, main cereal crops include wheat, barley, oats, corn, rice, buckwheat and pea.
Bread is cultivated in all continents, except for Antarctic. The grain of cereal crops is used for making flour, confectionery products, fodders; it is used for preparation of beverages, alcohol production.
For example, the flour produced from wheat grains is used for making bread, pasta and confectionery products, cereals. Wheat is also a fodder and is used for beer and vodka production. Bread is made by mixing wheat with water or another liquid, by adding a starter and various substances for giving a special flavor.
Wheat protein contains a substance, which intensifies taste, in Japan it is added to the soya sauce. Wheat flour is used for making so-called “soluble” dishes – porridges, high protein flakes for breakfast. Wheatgrass has most healthy properties. Fruit and vegetable salads are made of wheat germs, or they are used as an independent dish.
Barley has significant national economic importance and it is widely used in animal breeding (as a part of concentrated cattle fodder), in brewing, flour-milling and confectionery industries, in textile production. Also, this cereal is often used as a raw material for production of ersatz coffee, grits; it is used in the pharmaceutical industry (barley grains are used for making the bactericide preparation – gordecin).
Approximately two thirds of the world production of corn is grown for feeding live-stock animals and poultry. Also, corn is the main source of starch, edible oils and fibrin, it is used for the cooking process, as well as in various cleaned and processed food products. Corn is widely used as the source of starch for pharmaceutical, paper, mining and construction industries. About 40% of corn harvest in the USA, i.e. 130 mln. tons per annum, are processed for getting corn ethanol, and in Europe it s used as the key raw material for biogas.

Quality indicator

Description

Wheat

Barley

Corn

Normative document

GOST 9353-90

   

Class

4

enter fodder

enter fodder

Moisture content, %, not exceeding

     

Black dockage, %, not exceeding

     

Grain admixture, %, not exceeding

     

Pest infestation

     

Country of origin